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Accounting for Bitcoin 

 

 We have probably all heard of the digital currency Bitcoin – there are some others but Bitcoin is the best known I think. I read a nice article on the Bitcoin magazine website recently which reminded me of the basic things us accountants need to consider if dealing in foreign currency or if a new currency comes along – it is not that long ago since the Euro came our way.

The article summarises well the three steps I experienced when operationalising the Euro more than a decade ago now. Like Bitcoin, the Euro was for me then a non-physical currency to begin with. The first “step” with the Euro and actually happening now with Bitcoin is use as a payment method. With the Euro, we had the ECU as a payment method first. In this case, the accounting entry is the same as any other payment method – such as a credit card or PayPal – all amounts are in local currency.  Step 2 would be to treat Bitcoin as a foreign currency. In my experience this typically happens when volumes of payments to/from customers/suppliers become larger. For example, many Irish SME treat GBP as a foreign currency in their accounting systems, but treat the USD more like a payment method. As the articles notes, if Bitcoin is treated as a foreign currency then exchange gains and losses need to be accounted for. Step 3 is adoption as a base currency. This may not happen of course, only time will tell. Let’s assume it does happen, then the accounting system works pretty much the same as in step 2. The would also be some work in translating assets and liabilities to the new currency. With the Euro this was relatively simple as fixed exchange rates were agreed and then it was matter of running a routine within the accounting software to do the calculations.

As the article suggests, more businesses are accepting Bitcoin (as its stabilises in value) and thus are at step 1.

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A new approach to cloud accounting software?

I am writing this post without using the software I mention, so apologies if I am incorrect.

Sage (a leading provider of accounts software) have recently extended their most popular product to the cloud. And they have done to in a way which seems to address a lot of concerns.

My experience of cloud accounting software is that while it is functional and easy to use, it does lack some of the capabilities that desktop accounting software offered. What Sage appear to have done is taken their best product for SME – Sage 50 – and retained the best of both worlds. The news release at the link above suggests a new product, Sage Drive, allows the user to retain the desktop functions but store data in the cloud. This has several advantages. First, the sharing capabilities of the cloud are available once the data is stored there. Second, existing functions are maintained and this may particularly suit the accountant users. Third, it may ease some security concerns accountants often mention with the cloud. From my understanding, only the data is cloud hosted. Some desktop software is still needed to make sense of the data.

Does new technology in accounting wipe out the old?

downloadQuite a tough question above I guess. I have always been interested in what technology can do for business – both as a management accountant and academic. It is probably fair to say that the past decade has so much more technological change than previous decades. We have seen smart phones, tablets, the cloud and social media all appear and take over our lives and change how business is done.

Personally, I am watching how accounting in small business is now potentially so much easier than ever before. For example, all a sole trader needs is a smart phone and they can issues invoices, records expense and even get paid. I would hope that over time this will become a reality. However, at the same time I am quite aware that it will be while before we see small businesses not having some manual recording.

I have also recently become a little interesting in accounting history. It has been commonly accepted that  symbols used on clay tablets used by traders in ancient Mesopotamia were a precursor to modern writing. These clay tablets were in effect what we call invoices or delivery notes today. One would imagine that writing would help simplify business of the ancient Mesopotamians, and replace the symbols on the tablets. Recent archaeological finds in Turkey however suggest otherwise. It would seem the tablets and symbols survived for many centuries after paper and writing were in common use. So I wonder will it a few centuries before small businesses take advantage of the present day accounting technology ? Incidentally, it seems tablets (but not clay ones) are probably a very simple way to manage small business accounting.

A management accounting system – in a police car!

More and more, technology is used to help many of us do our job. I read an article a few months in the Wall Street Journal about how increasing integration of technology in NYPD police cars is helping officers fight crime. Of course, in-car systems are not confined to NYPD, and many European police forces use technology in patrol cars.

The article mentions a smart car, which is being trialed in one NYPD precinct. The car is equipped with number plate recognition, video cameras and even radiation detectors. All data collected is transmitted back to a central location, where it can be analysed at a high level if needed. The technology also allows officers make decisions while on patrol – for example, ignore a car with an outstanding parking ticket, but stop if if stolen.

So, where is the management accounting system is this police car? Ok, this is a trial, but it is likely to reflect what an actual patrol car will do in the near future. I define management accounting as the provision of information to make decisions. Using this simple definition, there are two ways we could describe the smart patrol car as part of a management accounting system 1) it provides officers with information to make decisions on the spot and 2) the information gathered may also be used to inform higher-level policy and strategic decisions.

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Artificial intelligence in Accounting

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In the latter part of 2013, I noticed several new developments in cloud accounting software. I suppose one of the key advantages of cloud accounting software is that it allows the software provider to concentrate on what they do well, while at the same time allow other software providers to integrate with their products. And, some of these products include some level of artificial intelligence.

To give an example of a non-cloud product first, Irish firm OCRex use optical character recognition to help accounting practices do bank reconciliations when smaller clients don’t do this – see http://www.ocrex.com/home. This software reads scanned bank statements and reconciles opening and closing closing balances, and leaving the accountant with the job of checking for missing items only. Thus, this product is intelligent in that it matches items on the bank statement using amounts and other information like to a reference.

Now let’s take this idea to the cloud. Several accounting software products can now scan emails., faxes and scanned documents to determine not only the amount of a business transaction, but also determine what kind of transaction it is. For example, xero software offers an add-on which reads transactions and posts automatically to the correct expense account. From my understanding of the xero add-on, it also learns as it goes, learning what supplier is posted to which expenses account etc. This certainly has a lot of potential for small businesses, reducing processing time and storing documents in the cloud.

Data analytics – the human input

English: Apple director Steve Jobs shows iPhone

English: Apple director Steve Jobs shows iPhone (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

Big data is a big thing in the management accounting practitioner world, and in the professional journals too. I have previously written some posts on what big data is (see for example, here and here) and I have noted that humans are still needed to interpret data. Here’s a great example, below. Before I start, just keep in mind what I always say to my students about technology – technology within computing devices is essentially dumb, it is nothing more that a series of 0 an 1 which do exactly what we program it to do.

 

This post from CSO outlines how good analytic is essential. It cites an example of an analysis of social media to predict trends in the US unemployment rate. The analysis used twitter feeds and other social media. It attempted to identify key words such as “jobs” and “unemployment”. A huge spike in the number of tweets appeared. Why? Steve Jobs had just died, so the word “jobs” was all over social media. As a human, we can easily distinguish the meanings of words, but an automated analysis or word collecting tool cannot. I believe management accountants have a key role to play in such sense-making of business big-data – after all we know the business quite well.

 

Accounting and changing technology – an infographic

From time to time I come across some nice infographics which are worth sharing.  Here is  a good one which gives a brief summary of the story of accounting and technology change.  If you can’t see it correctly, here is a direct link.

How Accounting Has Been Changed By Technology Over Time
Source: Accounting-Degree.org

A great reporting tool from Excel – PowerMap

Bull Dutch National Supercomputer

As you might know from some of my previous posts,  I really like concise presentation of information. The infographic is one of my favourites.  Graphical reporting is always great, and managers tend to really like it – it simple, conveys trends, and it’s not boring accounting numbers.

I read a piece on CIMA Insight  about a new add-in for Excel 2013 called GeoFlow, or more correctly PowerMap. You can read the full article here. The add-in uses Bing Maps (from Microsoft) and you can plot up to a million rows of data against a map. You can also plot date data, so you could for example see how sales have trended over time on a map. The data can be presented in 3D format, as bubbles, or as a heat map. This tool will certainly create really cool business reports.

Cash accounting – an alternative to accruals accounting? And what about accounting software?

English: Accounting machine from UK manufactur...

English: Accounting machine from UK manufacturer Powers-Samas. (Norwegian Technology Museum, Oslo.) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In Ireland and the United Kingdom (and maybe come other countries) it has always been possible for smaller business to pay VAT based on cash received rather than on an accruals basis.  You probably know what the accruals concept is, but if not click here. When I teach accounting or prepare accounts, the accruals concept is used almost without exception. The profit & loss account (income statement) and balance sheet (statement of financial position) will definitely use the accruals concept. In fact, these  financial statement often take a different name and format when prepared for a cash-based business. For example, when I teach how to prepare the financial statement of not-for-profit organisations such as clubs, we often refer to a “Receipts and Payments Account” and a “Statement of Affairs”. The former is like an income statement, but is based on cash records; the latter is a list of assets and liabilities and will normally draw on the accruals concept.

From April 1st 2013, the UK tax authorities permits smaller unincorporated businesses to use a cash based accounting scheme where the turnover is less than £77,000 (see here for more detail). I’m not a UK tax expert, but from my reading about the topic on the web, the “income” of a small business will be the cash received, and the “expenses” will be cash paid for business expenses. This sounds like a reasonable effort to simplify the tax system for the smallest of businesses. The accruals concept may not be that relevant to many of these businesses as, for example, they may have few assets (to depreciate) and receive payment for most work as soon as it is done. So all fine? Well apparently, many accountants protested this new scheme, and that’s not surprising given how the accruals concept is engrained not only in the teaching of accounting, but also in accounting regulations. As a management accountant, I would always encourage the smallest of businesses to think in cash terms – it is easier for business owners with little accounting skills to understand. But I do see one big problem with this scheme in the UK. It centres around what happens when turnover exceeds £77,000. Once this happens, the business must revert to accruals accounting. This would cause much confusion if a business is using accounting software.  Normally, accounting software incorporates accruals accounting, but some also support cash accounting  in the way described here. I’m not 100% sure, but I would imagine if you set up software to work in one method, it may not be that easy to switch. So even though this cash scheme is easier and optional for small UK business, if they use accounting software (and more and more do) then it is probably best to stick to accruals accounting.

Big data and business decisions – humans still needed

C-3PO vs. Data (137/365)

Here is a good article from CGMA magazine which highlights the importance of human interpretation of data. It is a reminder that although we have technology to analyse data which we could not do ourselves, we still need the human eye to make sense of data trends etc. and relate it to organisational context.

 

How important are information systems to accountants – an academic’s view

Max the Accountant Cat

Max the Accountant Cat (Photo credit: Found Animals)

Personally, as someone who has implemented and worked with several accounting and business information systems, I would say information systems are vital to accountants. Without them, financial accountants and auditors get no financial statements; without them, managers get no information to make business decisions. But that is the practical me.  And I suppose the academic me too. However, if the recent European Accounting Association (EAA) annual conference is anything to go by,  the academic community does not share my view. The EAA is a great conference, and brings together about 1,500 academics from all over Europe and beyond. Now, what I am about to say is not at all intended to be negative against the EAA, rather a reflection on the possible lack of focus by accounting academics on the ongoing effects of information systems on accounting and accountants. Of about 900 papers at the 2013 EAA conference in Paris, only 9 were presented under the title “information systems”. I did a quick check to see if papers were not categorised correctly and I only found 2 or 3 papers which I personally might classify as information systems papers.

So what does this mean? I don’t know to be honest. Maybe it’s a temporary blip. Having said that, the previous conferences were not teeming with papers on the things that drive accounting work on a daily basis i.e. information systems. The only thing I can say to my fellow academics is that information systems and technology is not a “black box” any more, it really does affect how we behave and how we do things – think of a smart phone for a moment. Technology does more now that just automate what we as accountants do – it can analyse data better and faster than us and deliver results directly to managers. I don’t think accountants are a redundant commodity yet, but as academics we need more detailed inside the box research to figure out what the accountants of the future will actually do. Well, that’s what  I think at least?

The problems with big data?

Big Data

Big Data (Photo credit: Kevin Krejci)

The previous two posts have hopefully given you a very brief insight into what big data is and how it can help even small organisations. Now let’s briefly consider larger organisations. Nowadays, even if a company like amazon can process a few million orders a day, the amount of accounting data associated with this (i.e.  a few million invoice and a few million payments) seems insignificant if we start to think about other data that might be collected at the same time. For example – and these are just a guess on my part – the age, sex, location of the purchaser, the type of device they searched and bought on, what the looked at before buying etc. The amount of data starts to get really, really big.

A report by Deloitte includes two quotes that capture the perceptions of big data really well:

“Big data is the new oil. The companies, governments, and organizations that are able to mine this resource will have an enormous advantage over those that don’t.”

“Big data will generate misinformation and will be manipulated by people or institutions to display the findings they want.”

(Source: The insight economy Big data matters— except when it doesn’t, Deloitte, 2012, available at link above)

As the report says, both the above perceptions are right. The key things about big data is getting information out of it and transforming that information into business knowledge. In other words, like many other things organisations encounter on a regular basis, big data needs to support the organisation’s strategy. This may mean being more competitive, gaining some market knowledge before others or opening up new business channels. Whatever big data might mean for larger (and smaller) organisations, I believe management accountants in particular have a key role in making in useful information/knowledge – after all, we are good at analysing information and filtering out what is relevant.

Big data and (small) accounting software

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Last week I wrote about big data in general. Now I will try to give an example of how accounting software used in small business can be a source of big data, which can ultimately help those same businesses.

Quickbooks is a common accounting software product used in many smaller and medium-sized businesses. Traditionally, Quickbooks was installed on a computer in the organisation, but nowadays it is also available as an online product. In other words, there is a cloud version. According to an article in Forbes in April 2012, as much as 35 million of Intuit (the owners of Quickbooks) customers use online software for accounting and tax returns. With anonymous data on 35 million small businesses, Intuit can obtain quite a lot of information for their own purposes in terms of capturing user needs and developing their products. But they are also using this information to assist their customers. One great example cited in the Forbes article is a Trends feature. With this feature, a business owner can compare their business to average performance trends in the same sector, and even with similarly sized businesses. A comparison of sales, operating margins and payroll cost is possible. This kind of information would be really useful for any small business and typically such a business would have neither the time or resources to obtain such data.

Business recovery plans – a must, but a cost?

20120711-135622.jpgThis summer, customers of the Irish based Ulster Bank faced 3-4 weeks of problems getting paid and paying bills as the banks payment system failed. Customers had to queue to get cash from their accounts and go to other banks to pay bills- see my post 2 weeks ago about how some countries are limiting the amount that can be paid in cash; these limits would be too low to pay a mortgage in Ireland for most.

When I worked in a paper firm, I was involved in the decision to set up a simple business recovery plan. At the time, I was IT manager at a plant with about €30m turnover and 150 staff. The whole place was more or less run by a single system which managed sales orders, production planning and invoicing. We had a server onsite which done all this. This was not always so, so once I realised we were so dependent on a single piece of hardware/software I initiated a discussion with the plant management board to get a recovery plan in place. To keep it brief the cost of having a server available to us at any location within 4 hours was €7000 per annum. As part of the contract we could also do a free trial run once a year to test how long it would take to recover our systems. I always remember the production manager saying this was a cheap deal as if we had no systems we would basically loose wall customers within a week. And all we did was made cardboard boxes. Surely a bank should have a much better system in place. The cost does not really matter in the decision, it’s much more about the list revenue and lost customers.

The photo by the way comes from a friends Facebook page .

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